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Can we trust the Bible

Is the Bible a myth borrowed from Babylonian and Sumerian myths 

Enuma Elish and the Bible 

Before the Jews were Israelites, Israelites were Hebrews, Hebrews were Mesopotamians, Mesopotamians (Baylonians and sumerians) and before that they were Shemites/semites the Semitic people and before they were Noaites and before that Adamites. The history of God and the world was orally passed on and written down when they were semetic and Mesopotamian (sumerians) people. The sumerians wrote their version (planets in our solar system were gods), Babylon later modified it (personified the planets to extra-terrestrial beings-Ea, Annu, Morduk-Be-L), Assyrians add some modifications. Elam would have had their version. Greece and the Europeans (Zeus version), the Asians also. At the time of their writings the true origin was already perverted. 

When Abraham one of these Mesopotamians was called out by God to leave Mesopotamia, he was called to leave the false teachings behind. Abraham would have known the Babylonian religions of Mesopotamia but Abraham met God for himself he was introduced to the true God but he did not document his relationship with God, he passed it on orally. His son Isaac & grandson Jacob (Israel) met God and great grandson Joseph had visions from God. While the Israelites were in Egypt Moses met this God in the dessert. After the Israelites came out of Egypt and they all met God and for the first time God and the true origin of man is then documented (by Moses).    

The scriptures provides documented evidence with an actual eyewitness testimony of creation. We have a witness the creator himself documented what happened at creation and put it in the Bible. Moses was not there so he was inspired by God to write it down. (Evolution does not have such witnesses. Evolutionists say that this witness is a liar and seeks to discredit this witness.) 

- 1400 years later Jesus (God) arrives on earth and settles this debate on which origin narrative is correct. He came to Jerusalem, he did not go to Babylon, he affirmed the Biblical narrative of the origin of the universe and the origin of mankind, He said Jewish religion points to him. No one can be saved except through him. There is no other God or religion but the Jewish God.

When you read the two origins (Bible and Babylonian) you see the similarities and differences and where the Babylonian old writings got perverted from the original which was passed down from Adam to Noah to the Babylonians which God also gave told Moses to document after the Babylonians documented their perversions. Old Babylonian version tells of how two Gods evolved from water which separated and they somehow evolved into two beings male and female. They were not eternal but ‘created’ by water. When the two waters got together they made young gods. The first two gods somehow had a person advising them what to do (where did this other god come from). The gods used to be busy working and their children distracted them from working during the day and he could not sleep at night. This is the reason he decided to kill his children. @32mins The young god’s drank beers and god drunk when deciding to kill Tiamat. He killed her with a bow. @41:14 her skull was smashed with a club and she bled. These god’s bodies were no different than humans with bone and blood. Their weapons were arrows and clubs At 45min creation of the earth from the body of Tiamat godess’ body Enuma Elish | The Babylonian Epic of Creation | Complete Audiobook | With Commentary - YouTube.  @55 Marduk the god of the annunaki gods asked them to build Babylon. @1:16 the Annunaki used picks and bricks to build Babylon. What kinds of gods have to use brick and did the earth with pics and take 2years to build a a temple to Be-L(Morduk). Then the god’s sat in Babylon and drank beers. Be-l/Morduk showed of his bow (sounds like Nimrud). Vs 115 of tablet 5? Said the humans should worship Morduk. 

Here is another version Enuma Elish: Part 1: The Creation of the Solar System - YouTube planets at war.  

Is the Bible a stolen Myth
Can we trust the Bible

CAN WE TRUST THE BIBLE

 

The Bible, “It subjects itself to historical criticism because it puts itself at risk. It speaks of times, places and people that anyone can investigate to disprove or verify its authenticity. The primary text documents of ancient religions including Islam is not historical narratives they are talking head theology. e.g. gospel of Thomas there are no places, times and historical figures that you can compare it to for historical value. You have to ask where the historical data is”. Daniel Wallace

Did the Nicaea council create the New Testament?

AD 110 the Church believed there were only 4 gospels and AD 175 Irenaeus declared there were only 4 gospels this was 150yrs before Nicea.

The council of Nicea did not determine what should go into the Bible? Absolutely no evidence of this whatsoever. The content of the debate was the nature of God not which books are approved or not approved. So, there was no creation of the New Testament or Old Testament.

AD 200 the Church recognised 20 of the 27 New Testament books.

Eusebius one year before the council of Nicaea, wrote Ecclesiastical History and in it he mentions the canonical books 4 gospels, acts, Paul’s letters, 1 John, 1 Peter, Revelation.

The only influence by Constantine was on ordering 50 Bibles that’s it. It seems that the books that were recognised were not put into one big book or volume until Constantine ordered the publish of the Bible. So, the New Testament existed as separate books but was later compiled as one book. So, to be clear Constantine did not choose what goes into the volume he simply order copies of it. What should be in and what should be out was already decided years before by God and agreed on by Church leaders.

 

 

Chapter 1

IS THE BIBLE TRUSTWORTHY

Why can you trust the Bible.

1-Is it a historical,

2-its prophesies come true,

3-archeological evidence,

4-Advanced scientific knowledge,                

5-supernatural activities,

6-written by different authours over hundreds of years.

The contents of the Bible suggest it is an authentic authority on supernatural events and its authour in chief is a supernatural being. Supernatural wars, supernatural powers and supernatural predictions about the future are all noted with in the book. Yet many don’t believe it to be true. They claim there is no proof that the people, events and places of the Bible did not exist therefore it is a fictional book and not a documentation of historical people, places and events. Therefore, apologists seek to prove the authenticity of the scriptures uses archaeology to prove the Bible is historically true. Also, science is used to show the supernatural knowledge of the authour concerning health, the human body and disease not provable until 3500 years later. Compare the prophesises to historical events that proved its predictions to be accurate and supernatural in knowledge.

 

 

 

Question & answers

Wasn’t the Bible written by imperfect man?

Yes, God inspired fallible men to write the first Bible. Inspired is not a quality of man but the power of God. Yes, there are errors in the Bible copies but the original Bible was without error.

The copiers made mistakes.

Yes. We believe the original is perfect and without error however, we do not have the original documents. We have great copies. We also have various copies of copies that shows the copiers did a great job because the information is the same since the original (e.g. if sis Shernell wrote a love letter and USA, India, China and Africa made a copy. The original was later burnt. When we look at the copies they say the same thing. So, we conclude the original info was copied correctly and therefore we know what was in the original book without having that letter. Spelling errors, punctuation are sentence errors that does not change the meaning and interpretation of the book. E.g. bob went up the road and gave his mom a kiss or bob went down the road and gave his mom a kiss.

The Bible is a story I don’t believe it.

It is a document that records factual historical places, events, times and people which some are verifiable by archaeological science.

Maybe the writers made it up.

We believe the Bible to be the inspired/expired word of God. We were not present at creation, so it is a matter of faith. Show me your evidence but that faith is grounded in two things. (a) a personal experience with the supernatural being God (b) the scientific method of determining truth i.e. Many of the places and people are verifiable by archeological science.  The legal method of determining truth that is we take the testimonies of the people who wrote the Bible. [c] Supernatural activities like miracles & prophesies witnessed.

What proof do you have the information was from God and not from men.

[1] Jesus verified the O.T. was from God.

[2] The O.T. miracles are beyond man’s ability. Mankind cannot defy the laws of nature in these ways.

[3] Fulfilled prophesies require knowledge of the future which is again beyond human ability.

So, since it is not natural then the only source has to be supernatural.

Information can be lost in translation.

Yes, and some has been lost in translation. Is this significant, NO since only 1% of the text variants (differences) are considered meaningful. It does not affect the understanding of the scriptures. In 2005, Dr. Maurice A. Robinson, Senior Professor of Greek and New Testament at Southeastern did an exhaustive manuscript study and concluded that there was 92.2% stability in the text during the time skeptics such as Bart Ehrman assert the highest number of variants were introduced. Of the 7.8% in dispute, only 1% of the text has variants considered meaningful.

The pseudepigrapha (false writing).

They are so different from the apostolic letters.

Not one of them appears among the book used as scripture by the early churches.

All were written far too late to have come from the hand of an apostle.

Many of the details in them are hopelessly inaccurate.

The forger of the letter of Herod did not realize that the Herod he wrote the letter from was not the same Herod of the time of Jesus. a clear historical forgery.

Five times Paul ensured that the readers check to make sure he wrote the letters by referring to his signature at the end of the letter.

How early are our oldest copies of the New Testament?

New Testament (one volume) -- 300 years after apostles. Before this time the books were all scattered however some were already collected but finally the 27 books of the New Testament work related as one volume. Codex Sinaiticus (Sinai book-Monastery in Sinai) is the earliest complete volume of the NT dated 350 AD.

Josephus Jewish antiquities-- 1300 years after his death. (earliest complete source volume)

Tacitus Augustus to Nero--- 800 years after his death. (earliest complete source volume)

Julius Caesar's Gallic wars-- 900 years after his death. (earliest complete source volume)

People do not say or by the way the earliest source for Julius Caesar is 900 years after his death therefore there will be thousands of errors and therefore we cannot trust anything that is said about the emperors of Rome or Julius Caesar's war.

Chester Beatty papyry-- 15 New Testament books (not a complete volume) soon after AD 200. This means that books were already being collected in the early 2nd century.

John Rylands Papyrus (Egypt).—5 verses from John 18 around AD 125. It was from a Codex (book) because it was written on both sides. Scrolls were written on one side.

Qumran (dead sea 1955 discovery) fragment 7Q5-- air fragment from Mark 6:52- 53? The cave was sealed in AD 68. And no one entered it again until 1955.

So all of this tells us that those critics who said that the gospel was wishful thinking buy a 3rd century church can be dismissed.

Why some books were left out of the Bible. (why keep eyewitness accounts instead)

If a 100yrs from now you had the task of researching the covid19 experience in Barbados. You have to come up with a system of comparing  them all. 

[1] you prefer the eyewitnesses account over someone in Russia who wrote about Barbados. So immediately we have an elimination. Is this a fair way to eliminate some and keep some.

[2] if you found documents that were written during the virus, 40yrs or 100yrs after, which one will you prefer? The earliest ones right. Is this a fair way to determine which sources are in and which out of the Bible? Yes it is.

Miracles in the Bible operate outside the laws of science.

Science means knowing. Scientists say we can only believe what we know and therefore what we don’t know don’t exist. For years we could not see past the twinkling stars, we did not know that anything was beyond the stars therefore anything beyond the stars did not exist. We could not see viruses therefore they did not exist and so on. To say that because we lack the tools and ability to know if something exist, is proof it does not exist is false argument. Science has proven time and time again that things it said did not exist actually existed.

Non-Christian sources

Non-Christian people wrote about the people, places, times in the Bible which confirms these Biblical people were real.

 

 

 

Chapter 2

TEXTS WE HAVE TODAY

Old Testament text discovered

The Bible describes a time when Hilkiah the high priest found the "book of the law" (2 Kings 22:8) or the "book of the covenant" (2 Kings 23:2) in the house of the LORD during the reign of Josiah.

Ezra, a direct descendant of Hilkiah (Ezra 7:1), canonized the Old Testament and transmitted it to future generations. Ezra's Old Testament was surely based on Hilkiah's copy found in the temple. The readings of this copy eventually diverged into the 4 various Old Testament streams extant today, such as the (1)Masoretic, (2)Dead Sea Scrolls, (3)Samaritan and (4)LXX.

Dead sea scrolls or Qumran scrolls.

Out of the roughly 800 manuscripts found at Qumran, 220 are from the Tanakh [The Hebrew Bible, which is also called the Tanakh, or sometimes the Mikra, is the canonical collection of Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah]. Every book of the Tanakh is represented except for the Book of Esther; however, most are fragmentary. Notably, there are two scrolls of the Book of Isaiah, one complete and one around 75% complete. These manuscripts generally date between 150 BCE to 70 CE.

Until the recent discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls (1948), the oldest extant Hebrew manuscript was about dated to the year AD 900. Since the Hebrew Old Testament was completed about 400 BC  (initiated by Ezra after Jews returned from Babylon) there was a time gap of 1300 years. The exciting news is that when the Dead Sea Scrolls were found two important things were discovered. First, the scrolls were well preserved having been carefully sealed and placed in jar in a dry climate c. AD 68 prior to the fall of Jerusalem (AD 70). While the scrolls were sealed in AD 68, some of the actual scrolls dated back to 125 BC. Most of the Dead sea biblical manuscripts were dated as being written between 200 BC and 68 AD. What all of this meant is that instead of relying upon copied manuscripts 900 years old, Hebrew scholars could look at manuscripts closer to the historic events. They could also see how well the copyists have preserved the texts which is the second great discovery.

NEXT

The Septuagint

Following the fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonians in 586 BC, the Jews were scattered throughout the Middle East. Many never returned home as one empire after another dominated the land of Palestine. Because of this Diaspora, the scattered Jews (cp. James 1:1) need a copy of the Hebrew Scriptures in the new international language. During the reign of King Ptolemy Philadelphia of Egypt (285-246 BC), seventy (LXX) scholars in gathered in Alexandria, Egypt to translate the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek. The LXX, being very close to the Massoretic Text (AD 916) we have today, helped to confirm the reliability of the transmission of the Scriptures through the years. There are other documents that could be appealed to for verification of the genuine of the Old Testament manuscripts and their reliability of being faithfully transmitted down through the centuries.

Textus Receptus (Greek texts of the New Testament)

There is a great deal of misinformation regarding the origins of the Textus Receptus. This is especially true of the manner in which Desiderius Erasmus gave us his original Greek New Testament which was published in 1516. It was this work which went on to become the foundation of the Textus Receptus.

Erasmus did not invent the Textus Receptus, but simply put together a collection of what was already the vast majority of New Testament Manuscripts in the Byzantine tradition.

The first Greek New Testament to be collated from partial New Testaments was the Complutensian Polyglot in (1514), but it was not published until eight years later but Erasmus's was the second Greek New Testament which was printed and published in (1516).

 

 

 

More than Half-Dozen Manuscripts

The fact that Erasmus had only a handful of manuscripts during his preparation of the 1516 edition is irrelevant in regard to the reliability of the text underlying his manuscript. First of all, no scholar disputes the fact that Erasmus had studied variant readings of the New Testament throughout his life prior to publishing the Textus Receptus.

Codex Vaticanus

The manuscripts was “found" in 1481 in the Vatican library in Rome, where it is currently held, and from whence it received its name. It is written on expensive vellum, a fine parchment originally from the skin of calf or antelope. Some authorities claim that it was one of a batch of 50 Bibles ordered from Egypt by the Roman Emperor Constantine 326 after the Nicea council ended; hence its beautiful appearance and the expensive skins which were used for its pages. A section of the codex containing 1 Esdras 2:1-8

Codex Vaticanus originally contained a virtually complete copy of the Septuagint ("LXX"), the Old Testament books and the extant New Testament of the Vaticanus contains the Gospels, Acts, the General Epistles, the Pauline Epistles, and the Epistle to the Hebrews (up to Hebrews 9:14, καθα[ριει); it is lacking 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and Revelation.

 

 

Alexandrian text

The name Alexandrian text-type comes from the Codex Alexandrinus, an ancient manuscript pictured above.

The Alexandrian text-type

is one of several text types found among New Testament manuscripts. It is the text type favored by textual critics and it is the basis for modern Bible translations. The name of the text type comes from Codex Alexandrinus, a manuscript of this type.

Over 5,800 New Testament manuscripts have been classified into four groups by text type. Besides Codex Alexandrinus , the other types are the Western, Caesarean, and Byzantine. From the ninth century onward, most surviving manuscripts are of the Byzantine type.

The King James Version and other Reformation-era Bibles are translated from Textus Receptus, a Greek text created by Erasmus and based on various manuscripts of the Byzantine type.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3

Rationale for the Canon

 

There are spurious claims from other books that say things about Jesus that are inconsistent with the canon of books (Bible) or claim to have hidden information. To help unbelievers understand why we have selected certain books (canon) here are a list of things to know.

[1] Apostle- was it written by an apostle.

[2] Consistency- the New Testament books presents sufficient evidence that consistently describes a particular character or person. The other book has no other witnesses/books corroborating its story. All other books deviate from this large body of evidence and testimonies.

[3] Perfectly matched prophesy-The information in the recognised body of scripture is consistent with the fulfilment of the prophesies of the Old Testament especially the purity of the sacrificed lamb. The books we have, teach a perfect saviour unblemished (un-sinful), and resurrected. This is consistent with God’s prophecy.

[4] Trustworthiness and inspired by God

If these epistles were written by Apostles, then the epistles are trustworthy for Jesus endowed with his spirit and commanded them himself to evangelise whether it be writings or preaching in person. If they have his spirit, then we know what they wrote was inspired. Books written by unknown sources are not trustworthy and cannot be elevated to the same level as men Christ sent personally. We cannot put your faith in books written by every and anybody they maybe sending you straight to hell. Have faith in the apostles

[5] Truth-We can therefore agree that the truth of God is captured within the New Testament books we have.

[6] Authentic- they have the ring of truth. [The internal witness of the text who strong evidence for its canonicity].

[7] Ancient- it used from the earliest times. [The church fathers rejected much of the ratings because there were two new (not old) to be apostolic.  Athanasius in 300s AD listed the canonical books he said “these are the books received by us as belonging to the canon). In other words these were the books in use across the Roman Empire].

[8] Accepted- Were most of the Churches using it? [almost all of the testament books (at least 22 of 27 for sure) were in use probably before 150 AD].

[9] Accurate- is it going form to the orthodox teaching on the churches. There was widespread agreement across the Christian churches as to the content of the message. Irenaeus asked if a particular rating was consistent with what the church taught. This is what ruled out the gnostic ratings because they were contrary to the consistent teaching of the church.

It is believed that the manuscripts we have are dated hundreds of years after the originals were written therefore this must mean that we have thousands of errors. but this is not the case. The Dead sea scrolls 1947. Keep one contained an entire prophecy of Isaiah it was dated around 150 BC. The earliest copy (Masaretic) that we had at that point was dated 950Ad about 1000 years between the two.

What were the earliest cannons.

130-140 AD Marcion Canon

150 AD muratorian Canon—24 of 27 books

180 AD irenaeus of lions 23 of 27

240 AD origen of Alexandria 27

325 AD eusebius of Caesarea –22+5

367 AD athanasius of Alexandria 27

397 AD council of Carthage

These are just the cannons or collections of books but before they were collected there were circulated earlier long before 150 AD.

Why did it take so long to have the canon?

The originals were not written in one book.

A canon is a collection of sacred books or a rule by which something is judged. The earliest canon -around 140 AD -we know of was collected by Marcion the Gnostic, which is just about 100yrs after Jesus. So, it did not take long at all for someone to start collecting the manuscripts. If we mean the one collected by the Church, then that will be before 300AD. Paul did not write all of his book at the same time in one place to one church. For example, Paul went to one country and wrote a letter two years later after visiting another country, another letter maybe three years later this continued for many years of ministry until he died. If you were to collect all of Paul's letters you would have to wait until 15 to 20 years had pass before you can get them all. Paul did not know his letters were going to be collected as book. He did not plan to write a book.

The originals were scattered across the whole empire.

The Christian world was scattered as far as Britain Africa Europe Asia Arabia. so obviously it would have taken time together all of the apostles writings into one book.

 

Scrolls were huge.

Luke’s gospel would require 30 feet of scroll 200 ft for the whole New Testament. So to put all of that even in a book (Codex) would have been too huge and heavy to carry around.

1st century Christians expected the immediate return of Christ.

So, because of this no one plan for the church to be wrong for a long time and therefore no one had the foresight to think to collect and preserve the writings of the apostles. it was only after the persecution that came after the 68 AD that the preservation of the Gospel message in Church writings would it become necessary.

 

No supreme bishop or Head Church.

For 500 years the church did not have a supreme Bishop who told them which books belonged to the Canon. Later in the Church of Rome decided to throw its vent around the Canon was already in place.

The early leaders assumed the authority of the gospels and the apostles.

No one had to tell the church that they had to quote from the letters of the apostles and the gospels their authority was self-evident. Although the apostles did not write mark Luke Jude and Hebrews it was agreed by the church that when papias who was alive at the time of the apostles said that mark group under the guidance of Peter and look with a written under the guidance of Paul. Jude was the brother of Jesus and it was common although not universal to accept Paul is the writer of Hebrews.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4

ARCHAEOLOGY and the Biblical

Before we dig up the earth, we have still standing on top of the earth, the city of Jerusalem whose ruins testify of Jesus’ prophesy about the total destruction of Jerusalem.

Archeology proves the historicity of the bible, its trustworthy book, its truthfulness, accuracy.

For years people made fun of the Bible and said it mentioned people and places that never existed. Archaeological discoveries have proven them wrong. Not one discovery contradicts Scripture, and actually all corroborate the historicity of the Bible.

1- Assyrian kings: ISIS was defeated in January of 2017 in Syria, ISIS had destroyed the Mosques and dug tunnels in Mosul, where the ancient city of Nineveh, the capital of Assyria was located. Discoveries corroborate.  Assyrian kings mentioned in the discovered wall inscriptions by Esarhaddon are mentioned in the Bible and in the correct order. Sargon Isaiah 20:1; Sennacherib (2 Kings 18–19; 2 Chronicles 32; Isaiah 36–37). Esarhaddon 2 Kings 19:37 and Isaiah 37:38. Ezra 4:2 also mentions that the Samaritans and the mixed peoples of other nations conquered by Assyria  Ezra 4:10, where he is also listed as an Assyrian king  

2-Isaiah: Archaeologists digging in the city of Jerusalem have made an exciting discovery—a 2,700-year-old clay seal bearing the name Isaiah. About 10 feet away from the Isaiah seal, archaeologists also discovered a seal for Hezekiah, one of four kings who reigned during Isaiah’s ministry.

3-Dead sea scrolls: These scrolls were written from around 150 B.C. and 70 A.D. There are 225 Biblical texts within the Dead Sea Scrolls which comprise around 22% of the total collection. These scrolls contain parts from all the Books of the Old Testament protocanon excluding one. Additionally, they contain four of the deuterocanonical books included in Catholic Bibles. They corroborate the validity and consistency of the Old Testament books in the Bible.

4-David and Solomon: in 1993 in Tel Dan Jerusalem. Archaeologists discover a stone inscription at the ancient city of Dan, which refers to the "House of David." The House of David Inscription (Tel Dan Inscription) is important because it's the first ancient reference to King David outside the Bible. Pottery bout 800 BC that contains a written receipt for a donation of silver shekels to Solomon's Temple.

5-Synagogue: The first century Synagogue at Capernaum is still visible today in what was the small fishing village on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee. This archaeological finding from the Bible corroborates the passage of Luke 7, where Jesus was speaking to an audience of people.

6-James the brother of Jesus (Bone box/Ossuary) Biblical Archaeology review magazine reports Jesus referred to on a stone bone box found in Jerusalem. The box inscription says James brother of Jesus son of Joseph. This not only make the New Testament believable but proves Jesus was a real person in Jerusalem and he was the brother of James and son of Joseph.

7-Caiaphas (Ossuary/a bone box) of Caiaphas the high priest: found 1961. Mat 26:3

8-Alexander (Ossuary) the son of Simon of Cyrene. Mark 15:21 says Simone of Cyrene the father of Alexander carried the cross of Jesus. (Ossuary) located in Huston Texas museum of natural science.

9-Pontius Pilate: Josephus (1st century history), Tacitus (1st century Roman historian) and Philo 1st century Jewish Philosopher all wrote about Pontius Pilate. In 1961 Archaeologists uncover a stone inscription Pontius Pilate Prefect of Judea’ found at Caesarea Maritime. This verifies he was the prefect of Judea. So, he was not a fictitious person of a fictitious story. Mat 27:17.

10-Herod the King Mat 2:16 under the chapel of the innocence a synagogue found hundreds of baby bones 1-2 years old. This is believed to be the era of Herod. Mark 13:1

11-Hezekiah’s tunnel under Jerusalem: 2 Chron. 32:2-4. A tunnel that matches perfectly with Hezekiah’s.

12- Sennacherib clay cylinder (Taylor’s prizm): 2 Chronicles 32:1 He speaks about Hezekiah, “ as to Hezekiah the Jew, he did not submit to my yoke… I laid siege to 46 of his strong cities, walled forts and to countless small villages and conquered them with battering rams.” 

13: Moabite stone. 1 kings 16:21-28. Found in 1868, a black basalt stone. Mesha the king of Moab wrote that Omri the king of Israel oppressed Moab …and mentions Omri’s son Ahab.

14: Nazareth found. Claim that Jesus never existed because Nazareth was not around in 1st Century B.C. In 2009 found a small house in Nazareth dated to the 1st century.

15: Cyrus Cylinder: 1879 cylinder found in city of Babylon, now in British museum. Cyrus said he returned the people of the other side of the Tigris river to their sacred sanctuaries and established permanent sanctuaries for them. This is in agreement with Ezra 1:1-4

16: Pool of Siloam: found 2004 in the city of David.  

17: Hittite Tablets: Joshua 11:3. In 1906 in Turkey uncovered 10,000 clay tablets documenting the history of the Hittite nation. Turkey was the capital of the Hittite nation.

18: Giants in the Bible: Giants existed in large numbers before the flood and after the flood. Their origin seemed to be caused by the interaction between sons of God and human women. After the flood Noah’s sons gave birth to grandchildren who were giants. The post flood giants lived as kings and great warriors. They encountered several battles recorded by the Bible.

Nephilim, Noah’s Giants pre-flood -Genesis 6:4;

Rephaim, Emims & Zuzims were killed in Abraham’s time by Chedorlaomer king of Elam Genesis 14:5.

EMIMS/Rephahim killed by lot son Moabites.

Deu 2:10-11

Zamzummims /Rephaites killed by lot son Amonites Deu 2:18-20 

Horims later Esau’s children killed them in Seir.

Deu 2:12.

Anakians While in Canaan Moses’ spies reported seeing the children of Anak the Giant -Anakians live in the south (Kijaharbor renamed Hebron by Caleb) of the land (Canaan) flowing with milk and Honey Numbers 13:33.

OG, Amorite giant king of Bashan killed by Moses Num 21:33-35 Deu 3:11

Anakims After Moses died Joshua killed Anakims of Canaan Josh 11:21-22 There was none of the Anakims left in the land of the children of Israel: only in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod remained.

Anakians Later Caleb got permission from Joshua to take the land God promised him after the spy mission and he drove Anakians out of Arbo (named after Anak’s father) and called it Hebron Josh 14:6-15 (Deu 9:1–2 it appears they went to the near by mountains next to Hebron to live.

Anakims Then Joshua killed all the 15:13-14

Anakims Later Judah killed the Anakians (also called Canaanites) in Judges1:10.

Goliath Later David killed Goliath who resided in Philistine (Mizraim’s Grandson) (2 Samuel 21:19) maybe nine or ten feet tall

Giants found & excavated: Over 1000 accounts of seven-foot and taller human like skeletons have reportedly been unearthed from ancient burial sites over a two-hundred-year period in North America. Newspaper accounts, town and county histories, letters, scientific journals, diaries, photos and Smithsonian ethnology reports have carefully documented this. These skeletons have been reported from coast to coast with strange anatomic anomalies such as double rows of teeth, jawbones so large as to be fit over the face of the finder, and elongated skulls, documented in virtually every state. 

19: Dinosaur: Job 40:15-24 Behemoth & 41:1, 19-21 Leviathan. The word became popular after biologist and paleontologist, Sir Richard Owen coined the term "Dinosauria" in 1841. The word dinosaur derives from two greek words (deinos) "terrible, powerful, wondrous" + (sauros) "lizard". Since 1841 archeological finds of thousands of giant animal creatures have been found and recorded. Some resembling Behemoth. Cave drawings almost all over the world demonstrate man living with giant land animals which are no longer alive.

20: Flood evidence: Gen 6-8. Geological evidence of the global flood of Noah

1: Sea creatures buried high in mountains of the continents 
2: Rapidly buried plants and animals 

3: Rapidly deposited sediment layers, across the continents

4: Long transport distance of sediments

5: Rapid or no erosion between sediment layers

6: Whole rock layer sequences deposited rapidly in quick succession.

Flood reports worldwide

There are several flood reports around the world. Flood accounts. If there was such a flood would other cultures speak of it? From Ancient Greece. The Greek flood myth says that Zeus, father of the gods, sent a mighty inundation to destroy the human race. India. The flood legend of India begins with a creator god named Manu washing himself with water from a jar. A fish in the jar asked for Manu's protection and promised to save him from a great flood that would occur in the future. Manu raised the fish until it was one of the largest fish in the world, and then he released it into the sea. The fish told Manu what year the flood would come and advised him to build a ship. Manu built the ship, and when the flood came, the fish towed it to a mountaintop. Native America. In many Native American myths, floods occur as punishment for human misdeeds. The Chiricahua Apache maintain that the Great Spirit sent a flood to drown the whole earth because people did not worship him. Australia. Several groups among the Aborigines, the native people of Australia, believe that a vast flood swept away a previous society. Southern China. The Yao people of southern China have a myth that tells how the thunder god caused a great flood. A man captured the god to stop the rains, but the god convinced the man's son and daughter to set him free, and the flooding resumed. The man built a boat and floated to heaven to ask the other gods to help. Ancient Near East. The basic flood myth of the ancient Near East, in which the flood was sent as a divine unishment, originated among the Sumerian cities in southern Mesopotamia.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4

SCIENTIFIC FACTS:

validate the supernatural / superhuman knowledge of the bible

1-Blood: lev 17:11 life of the flesh is in the blood. It took 3500 years for scientists to figure this out.

2-Sanitation practices:

A-bury the excrement. Deuteronomy 23:12-13 Hebrews were taught to bury their stool. Excrement (toilet training) We are taught to excrete away for others and homes and to cover it in the earth. 1846 cholera killed 16,000 in England because the people dumped stool in the streets.

B-Hand washing procedures. 3500 yrs ago in Numbers 19:11-12.  But in 1847 many mothers died at child-birth because doctors examined dead bodies did not wash their hands or washed them in dirty water then touched women during child delivery. Long before people knew how bacteria and viruses caused disease.

C- Sanitize after disease: Lev 11:25 God taught us to sanitise by washing our clothes, hands and bodies when sick. Also, to wash our hands after touching a dead person and before eating

Quarantine: Lev 13:45-46, 2 Kings 15:5 We were taught to self-quarantine and to quarantine others and from others (social distancing) when infected.

Notify of disease: Lev 13:45 We were taught to inform others of our disease.

3-The earth hangs on nothing: Job 26:7. Some cultures believed the Earth was on a turtle back or was attached to a foundation. The Bible here claims that is not so.

4-The Earth is not flat: Isa 49:22 When people saw a straight horizon at the end of the sea they assumed the world had a straight edge that you fall off. The bible said it was circular not straight edged.

5-Ship Engineering: Gen 6:17 (ratio-30x5x3)

6-Quarantine: Lev 13:46

7-Food regulations: Lev 11:7-8

 

Chapter 5

PROPHESIES fulfilled

Prophesies validate the supernatural knowledge, truth, historicity & reliability of the bible.

Prophesies. Accurately predict the future that came true every time. This is proof that that book or the person had divine help. Humans can’t do this.

  • Some of these prophesies are recorded in secular historical literature.

  • It is believed there are 100s of fulfilled prophesies.

  • Mankind is incapable of seeing into the future.

  • Only someone with the ability to see into the future and not limited by time can make such accurate predictions.

  • Hence the reason for our strong faith.

 

  1. A worldwide flood would come. Gen 6:

  2. The 7-year famine of Egypt. Gen 41:30-54

  3. The capture of Israel by Assyria. 1 Chronicles 5:26; 2 Kings 15:29

  4. The end of Assyrian Empire.

  5. The Prophesy of Cyrus the great in. Isaiah 44:27-45:2

  6. The capture of Jerusalem by Babylon. Isa 39:5-6, Jeremiah 25:9

  7. The future great kingdoms, Persia, Greece & Rome. Dan 8:19-22

  8. The capture of Babylon by Persia Dan 5:30-31

  9. The end of the Grecian Empire.

  10. The destruction of Babylon. Isa 17:21: 17-18

  11. Prophet Ezekiel prophesied the destruction of the city of Tyre. Hiram, king of Tyre, was

instrumental in the building of the Temple in Jerusalem during the time of Solomon (1 Kings 5:1-18). The friendship between the Jews and Phoenicians ended when King Ahab married a daughter of King Ethbaal of Sidon. During the time of Joel, the Phoenicians sold Jewish children as slaves to the Greeks. The Lord promised retribution. "Indeed, what have you to do with Me, O Tyre and Sidon, and all the coasts of Philistia? Will you retaliate against Me? But if you retaliate against Me, swiftly and speedily I will return your retaliation upon your own head; because you have taken My silver and My gold, and have carried into your temples My prized possessions. Also the people of Judah and the people of Jerusalem you have sold to the Greeks, that you may remove them far from their borders." (Joel 3:4-6).

In Ezekiel 26, God makes a proclamation concerning Tyre, summed up in the following:

  • Many nations would come against Tyre (Ezek. 26:3)

  • The walls of Tyre would be broken down (Ezek. 26:4)

  • Dust would be scraped from her, and she would be left like a bare rock (Ezek. 26:4)

  • Tyre would be a place for the spreading of nets (Ezek. 26:5)

  • Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, would build a siege wall around Tyre (Ezek. 26:8)

  • Nebuchadnezzar would plunder the city (Ezek. 26:9-12)

  • The stones, timber and soil of Tyre would be cast into the sea (Ezek. 26:12)

  • The city would never be rebuilt (Ezek. 26:14)

After the destruction of Jerusalem and the carrying away of her king Zedekiah into captivity, "Nebuchadnezzar took all Palestine and Syria and the cities on the seacoast, including Tyre, which fell after a siege of 13 years (573 B.C.)" (E. A. Wallis Budge, Babylonian Life And History, p. 50). The inhabitants of Tyre fled to a rocky island half a mile offshore. The walls on the landward side of the island were 150 feet high. "The channel between Tyre and the mainland was over twenty feet deep, and frequently lashed by violent south-west winds. Their fortifications, they believed, would resist the strongest battering-ram yet devised. The city-walls stood sheer above the sea: how could any army without ships scale them? Shore based artillery was useless at such a range." (Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon, p. 248).

On his way towards Egypt, Alexander the Great (David Chandler, Alexander 334-323 B.C., p. 41) was tempted to bypass the island fortress and continue his march towards Egypt. He sent messengers to Tyre, urging them to accept a peace treaty. Believing themselves to be safe on their island, the Tyrians killed Alexander's ambassadors and threw their bodies from the top of the walls into the sea. This act served only to anger Alexander and embitter his troops.

Alexander determined to build a mole to get his troops from the mainland to the island. The mole is said to have been at least 200 feet wide. It was constructed from stones and timber from the old city of Tyre on the mainland. In fulfillment of Ezekiel's prophecy, the very foundation stones, timbers and dust of the city was cast "in the midst of the water" (Ezek. 26:12)

Messianic Prophesies fulfilled

The evidence for inspiration continues in the life of Christ for Jesus fulfilled every single Scripture concerning Himself.

Daniel 9:25-26

25 Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. [TSK]

26 And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself:

Clearly the Messiah was prophesied to come and be killed 400+ years after the decree of the Persian king to rebuild the second temple and before the second temple would be destroyed.

THE MAJESTY OF THE MESSIAH MANIFESTED

IN PROPHECY FULFILLED

Genesis 2:13

Gal 4:4

be born of a woman

Genesis 12:3

Matthew 1:1

of the seed of Abraham

Genesis 17:19

Luke 3:34

of the seed of Isaac

Numbers 24:17

Matthew 1:2

the seed of Jacob

Genesis 49:10

Luke 3:33

from the tribe of Judah

Isaiah 9:7

Luke 1:32,33

heir to the throne of David

Micah 5:2

Luke 2:4,5,7

born in Bethlehem

Daniel 9:25

Luke 2:1,2

born after 490 years

Isaiah 7:14

Luke 1:26-31

born of a virgin

Jeremiah 31:15

Luke 2:16-18

birth of the Messiah

Hosea 11:1

Matthew 2:14ff

lee to Egypt

Malachi 3:1

Luke 7:24,27

Announce The Messiah

Psalm

Matthew 3:17

honored as the Son of God

Isaiah 9:1,2

Matthew 4:13ff

minister in Galilee

Deuteronomy 18:15

Acts 3:20,22

a Prophet

Isaiah 61:1,2

Luke 4:18,19

minister to the weak of society

Isaiah 53:3

John 1:11;

Luke 23:18

rejected by His own

Psalm 110:4

Hebrews 5:5,6

an eternal Priest

Zechariah 9:9

Mark 11:7,9,11

come in glory to Jerusalem

Psalm 41:9

Luke 22:47,48

betrayed by a familiar friend

Zechariah 11:12

Matthew 26:15

sold for thirty pieces of silver

Psalm 35:11

Mark 14:57,58

be falsely accused

Isaiah 53:7

Mark 15:4,5

not defend Himself

Isaiah 50:6

Matthew 26:67

publicly humiliated

Psalm 35:19

John 15: 24, 25

hated without a cause

Isaiah 53:5

Romans 5:6,8

suffer a vicarious death

Isaiah 53:12

Mark 15:27,28

crucified with criminals

Zechariah 12:10

John 20:27

wounded in His body

Psalm 22:7,8

Luke 23:35

laughed at and scorned

Psalm 69:21

Matthew 27:34

given vinegar to drink

Psalm 109:4

Luke 23:34

would pray for those who hurt Him

Psalm 22:17,18

Matthew 27:35- Soldiers would gamble for the Messiah's garments

Psalm 34:20

John 19:32,33       No bones of the Messiah would be broken

Zechariah 12:10

John 19:34  -side of the Messiah would be wounded

Isaiah 53:9

Matthew 27:57     buried with the rich

Psalm 16:10; 59:15

Mark 16,7            live again after death

Psalm 68:18

Mark 16:19          ascend into glory for ever

 

Inspiration and the Prophets

The prophets did not always understand their own writings. Instead of their own minds being the source from which they drew their wisdom, the Bible reveals that they themselves, "inquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you, searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify when he testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ and the glory that should follow." 1 Pet. 1:10,11. In answer to their diligent search and inquiry, "it was revealed that not unto themselves but unto us they did minister the things that are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you" 1 Pet. 1:12. " Here is the evidence of a directing divine Mind that guided the writings of the prophets to an end beyond their own times and beyond their natural source of information. Another Mind wrought through their minds and wrote His message to generations then unborn." (David Clark)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Chapter 6

SUPERNATURAL activities

found with in the Bible.

1: The God of the Bible claim to have knowledge (scientific/medical) about how to practice healthy living to avoid sickness and death which took over 3500 years for science to discover.

2: Prophesies. Accurately predict the future that came true every time. This is proof that that book or the person had divine help. Humans can’t do this.

3: A unified writing of 66 books and different authours.

4: Jesus: defied all laws of nature with his miracles, possessed Earthly and other worldly knowledge, and was the only human to claim sinlessness.

Conclusion

The Bible is truly a book from a God who was there from the beginning of human history, observed history, interacted with history, knew the future before it became history, directed and shaped how human the future will become history. If this be the case then you can trust this God.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7

UNIQUE in its continuity.

Yes, its historical but can it be trusted. Here is a book:

1. Written over a 1,500 year span.

2.  Written over 40 generations. 3.  Written by over 40 authors from every walk of life including kings, peasants, philosophers, fishermen, poets, statesmen, scholars, etc.:

3. Moses, a political leader, trained in the universities of Egypt & soldier, Peter a fisherman, Amos a herdsman, Joshua a military general, Davis a King, Nehemiah a cupbearer, Daniel a prime minister, Luke a doctor, Solomon a king, Matthew a tax-collector, Paul a rabbi. 

4. Written in different places: Moses in the wilderness Jeremiah in a dungeon Daniel on a hillside and in a palace Paul inside prison walls Luke while traveling John on the isle of Patmos Others in the rigors of a military campaign

5.  Written at different times: David in times of war Solomon in times of peace

6.  Written during different moods: Some writing from the heights of joy and others writing from the depths of sorrow and despair

7.  Written on three continents: Asia, Africa and Europe

8. Written in three languages: Hebrew: Was the language of the Old Testament. In II Kings 18:26-28 called "the language of Judah". In Isaiah 19:18 called "the language of Canaan". Aramaic: Was the "common language" of the Near East until the time of Alexander the Great (6th century BC - 4th century BC) Greek: New Testament language. Was the international language at the time of Christ.

9.  Its subject matter includes hundreds of controversial subjects. A controversial subject is one which would create opposing opinions when mentioned or discussed.

Our God breathed book the Bible

The Inspiration of the Scriptures

"If we have in the Word of God no infallible standard of truth, we are at sea without a compass, and no danger from rough weather, which without, can equal to this loss within. 'If the foundation be moved, what can the righteous do?' And this is a foundation loss of the worst kind." (Unknown)

 

The study of inspiration includes many facets as the following points illustrate.

The Bible declares simply enough that, "All Scripture is given by inspiration of [Gk. theopneustos, lit., God-breathed]." What does that mean? Various views have been offered to help guide the understanding.

“Inspiration is such an influence over the writers of the Bible that all their teachings which have a religious character are trustworthy.” E. A. Park

“Inspiration is help from God to keep the report of divine revelation free from error.” W. C. Wilkinson

“Inspiration was an influence of the Spirit of God on those powers of men which are concerned in the reception, retention and expression of religious truth—an influence so pervading and powerful that the teaching of inspired men was according to the mind of God.” Alvah Hovey

“God has first revealed Himself and then has inspired men to interpret, record and apply this revelation.” Christmas Evans

Men who denied infallibility of the Bible are usually ready to trust the infallibility of their own opinion

It is argued that there has never been any divine inspiration of Scriptures. Response. The argument has tried to be made that the Bible is only a human book. Believing this, the Atheist, Pantheist, Deist, Liberal Theology and the ordinary unbeliever has no use for the Scriptures for they do not have a correct concept of inspiration.

It is argued that the events were inspired but not the record of the event. Response. This is a careless concept. If God is truly sovereign and decrees all things that come to pass, then there cannot be a separation between what happens by Divine will and what is faithfully recorded to have happened. It is a dubious position to admit that God might inspire an event and then deny that He would inspire the recording of that event.

It is argued that the thoughts of the Bible were inspired, but not the words. Response. This is not possible. As Dr. W. G. T. Shedd points out, "An idea is an internal word. A word is an external idea." They are intrinsically united. The Scriptures recognize this in various passages.

Thought and words are bound together and cannot be separated the one from the other. Words are "the clothes of ideas". Moses was told, "I will be with your mouth and teach you what you shall speak." (Ex. 4:12) God charged Ezekiel saying, "And you shall speak my words to them." (Ezek. 2:7) Of the Ten Commandments it was said, "And God spoke all these words" (Ex. 20:1) Conservative Christian scholars have always insisted that the men who wrote the Bible were inspired; their thoughts were inspired, and their words were inspired. “The authority of the Holy Scripture, for which it ought to be believed, dependeth not upon the testimony of any man or church, but wholly upon God (who is truth itself), the author thereof; therefore it is to be received because it is the Word of God.” (The Baptist Confession Of Faith Of 1689, Chapter 1, Section 4; study 2 Pet. 1:19-21; 2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Thess. 2:13; 1 John 5:9).

It is argued that the writers were preserved from error in matters necessary to salvation, but not as to other matters like history, chronology, science etc. Response. It is impossible to tell what is and what is not necessary to salvation. If the history is false, the doctrine cannot be true. If the gospels are mythical, we have no Saviour. If the resurrection of Christ is a fabrication, our faith is in vain. Such vital matters as the incarnation (God in the flesh), atonement, regeneration, calling, salvation, resurrection, and future rewards and punishments require the guidance of an infallible (unerring) Spirit to avoid any doctrinal statement that would be misleading.

Plenary And Verbal Inspiration

The historic doctrine of the Church is that the Scriptures assert a plenary and verbal inspiration.

 Plenary inspiration means that the Bible is inspired in all its parts in the original autographs. Christ never distinguishes between the books of the Bible as to their divine origin and authenticity, but applies the term, "Word of God," to the whole canon of the Old Testament. The Apostles do the same (2 Tim. 3:16).

Verbal inspiration means that in the making of the Scriptures the guidance of the Holy Spirit extended to the precise words that were used and not merely to the thoughts or concepts. The Scriptures constantly claim that their words were given or directed by the Holy Spirit (2 Pet. 1:21; Acts 4:25; 1 Cor. 2:13).

Inspiration and Inerrancy

In discussing the inspiration and inerrancy of the Bible, care should be taken to remember that inerrancy does not mean that the writers themselves were faultless in life. What the doctrine does teach is that the writers were preserved from error in their teaching while they were writing the Scriptures. Individual authors may have embraced wrong conceptions about many things as Peter did at Antioch and had to be rebuked by Paul (Gal. 2:11-17). However, the Holy Spirit sovereignly restrained Peter and all the authors of the Scriptures from teaching error through their scriptural writings.

Inerrancy does not mean that a wrong interpretation could not be put on the text, or that it could not be misunderstood. The Pharisees misquoted the Old Testament and Peter found the writings of Paul difficult to understand (2 Pet. 3:16).

Inerrancy does not deny the flexibility of language as a vehicle of communication. It is often difficult to convey an exact statement because language is flexible. It is also possible for words to have a variation of meaning that is why conservative Christians have argued for plenary verbal inspiration in the original autographs (i.e., the first documents).

 

What inerrancy does means is that truth is conveyed in words which, understood as they were meant to be understood, express no error in the original autographs.

 …………………………………..

The unity of the Scriptures concerning the Saviour offers another evidence of divine inspiration. “The Bible tells one story, exhibits one plan, opens with the fact of a ruined race, and the promise of a Deliverer, proceeds to trace the plan of salvation and the history of God's kingdom, and comes to a conclusion that is absolutely fitting and logical. The obvious conclusion is that a divine superintendent wrought out the plan and the record of it; every design implies a designer; and the design in the Scriptures must have had one overruling designing mind.” (David Clark) Because of the unity of Scriptures we find Christ from Genesis to Revelation.

…………………

Proof of Divine inspiration is found in the fact that the Word of God was supreme in Israel. From the earliest days of Israel's life, the word of the prophet, God's spokesman, delivered as God's word, was regarded as of divine force, and above all question (study Deut. 4:2; 18:15-20; 17:8-20). Josephus bears witness to this fact. "Never, although many ages have elapsed, has any one dared either to take away or to add, or to transpose in these, anything whatever; for it is with all the Jews, as it were an inborn conviction from their very earliest infancy, to call them God's teachings, to abide in them, and if necessary, to die joyfully in maintaining them. They are given to us by the inspiration that comes from God."

The Testimony of Jesus Christ

Whoever accepts Jesus Christ as Lord must also accept His understanding of the Scriptures. Only by denying the deity of Christ can one dispute the value of His testimony. And the testimony of Christ is this: Jesus always referred to the Scriptures as the Word of God! "Have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God?" (Matt. 22:31 cp. Matt. 19:4-5; Mark 7:9,10,13).

In Mark 12:36, Christ quotes Psalm 110 and attributes the reference to God. In Christ's prayer in John 17:17, the Lord says to His Father, "Thy word is truth," referring to the Scriptures (cp. Luke 16:31 and Luke 24:25). It is absolutely unworthy of the Majesty of the Messiah to suggest that Jesus merely voiced the sentiments of His day. It is a disgrace to declare that Jesus was not ignorant of prevailing error but He simply accommodated His teaching to current beliefs in order to communicate better. That is not true. Christ professed a knowledge and authority far beyond the men of His day that embraced the past as well as the future. Jesus could speak knowingly of Abraham and Moses, and just as positively of the judgment day and the scene beyond the horizon of time. Because of His knowledge and authority of the Scriptures, the Lord did not hesitate to correct the wrong views of the Scribes, lawyers and Pharisees. Jesus pointed out the fallacy of many rabbinical teachings; but He never corrected anyone for believing that the Scriptures were divinely inspired and absolutely authoritative.

If Peter was wrong in declaring Jesus to be the Son of God, based upon the Scriptures, Jesus should have disavowed it. If the Jews were mistaken in regarding the Old Testament as the Word of God and of supreme authority, Jesus should have set them right for He said: "To this end was I born and for this cause came I into the world that I should bear witness unto the truth." (John 18:37) The conclusion is that when Christ referred to the Old Testament as the law, the prophets, and the psalms, He referred to a canon that was complete in His day and was without dispute.

Christ's Appeal to the Scriptures

It is instructive to realize that Christ regarded an appeal to the Scripture as final. To the tempter, Satan, Jesus said, "It is written." (Matt. 4:1-10) That settled the matter. What the Scriptures said could not be controverted or broken. "It is written" (no matter in what part) was sufficient authority for Him. The Lord frequently said to the scribes and Pharisees: "Have ye never read?" This was an appeal to the Scriptures as the final arbiter that settled all disputes. Jesus said to the Sadducees: "Ye do err not knowing the Scriptures nor the power of God." (Mark 12:24) What the Scriptures said of any question of concern was the last word. No need of any other appeal, and no higher appeal could be made. "In all of this it is seen that Jesus Christ took the Scriptures as the law of His life and the supreme test of human conduct. What Christ did and said all must accept who call Him Master and Lord." (David Clark)

The Authority of the Scriptures

Historically, the Church has always stood for the authority of the Scriptures. Irenaeus said, "Being most assured that the Scriptures are indeed perfect since they were spoken by...the Holy Spirit." Augustine said, "I believe most firmly that not one of these authors has erred in any respect in writing." Luther declared, "The Scriptures have never erred." Calvin stated that, "The Scriptures are the certain and unerring rule." John Wesley said, "If there be any mistake in the Bible there may very well be a thousand. If there be one falsehood in the Book, it did not come from the God of truth."

If the Scriptures are the word of God, they are of absolute authority. There is no appeal from the Word of God to any higher court. All importunity from the Scriptures to the Church, or tradition, or reason, or public sentiment is illogical and destructive. The foremost cry of the Reformation was sola Scriptura or Scripture alone. [Other Reformation principles were sola gratia, grace alone; and sola fide, faith alone]

♦ 1 John 5:9 "If we receive the witness of men, the witness of God is greater."

 

♦ 1 Thessalonians 2:13 "When ye received the word of God, which ye heard of us, ye received it not as the word of man, but, as it is indeed, the word of God."

The Church Fathers

While the evidence for a reliable Old Testament canon of Scripture is impressive, the evidence of primary source material for the New Testament is overwhelming. No scholar should ever doubt the New Testament as being a competent primary source document from the first century. In addition to the written testimonies of individuals who wrote as eyewitnesses or from first hand information (Luke, Peter, John, Paul etc.), there is supporting evidence of the extra biblical authors such as Eusebius, the bishop of Hierapolis (AD 130), Papias, Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons (AD 180), Clement of Rome (AD 95), Polycarp (AD 70-156), and Flavius Josephus, the Jewish historian. Each of these authors quoted profusely from the gospels and epistles and thus verified their factual and doctrinal contents.

Some extra-biblical sources were non-Christian for example-Aristides was a philosopher at Athens and addressed an apology to the emperor Hadrian in 125 AD. This manuscript was recovered in 1889. Aristides does not quote from the New Testament but he does give a summary of Christian doctrine including the divinity of Christ, His incarnation, virgin birth, resurrection, and ascension. Aristides says that these doctrines are taught in the gospels where men can read it for themselves.

External Biblical sources

Early in the second century, there were some heretics known as Gnostics (Gk. "knowledge"). One Gnostic was a man named Marcion  (writing 144AD). Even though he held to unorthodox views, Marcion proves that the Scriptures were in prior existence by the fact that he rejected many of the epistles of the apostles and formalised a canon 130-140 AD. In fact, it was the teachings of Marcion that compelled the Church to formally decide which books were to be canonical and which ones were spurious.

Ignatius (AD 70-110). He was the Bishop of Antioch and was martyred for Christ. Ignatius was a pupil of Polycarp who was a disciple of the apostle John. As a gifted writer, Ignatius quotes the gospels.

Clement, who may have been the same Clement which Paul mentions in Philippians 4:3, quotes the gospel of Luke in his writings (17:1,2) as did Origen, Eusebius, and Jerome. The date assigned to the First Epistle of Clement is about 95 AD though some would argue for an earlier date of 68 BC or 64 BC.

Another work, the Epistle of Barnabas (c. AD 100), is included in one of the oldest manuscripts of the New Testament as if it were a canonical book. This epistle bears witness to the existence of the New Testament by quoting Matthew 22:14. The point of all of this evidence is that there is tremendous support for reliable original documents that were copied and preserved in great numbers by the early church fathers in order to be faithfully passed on to the next generation.

Were the Apostles Deceived?

Liberal theologians have suggested that it means nothing because the Apostles were themselves deceived.

Why would the Apostles want to perpetuate such a fantastic lie? The Apostles had nothing to gain by continuing the work of a disgraced and discredited Messiah if they knew He was really dead. It was their unshakable belief that they saw the resurrected Christ that compelled them to believe in the deity of Christ and they gave their lives for that faith. Nearly all of the Apostles were martyrs. “These men sealed their testimony with their blood.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESOURCES

." (The Baptist Confession of Faith of 1689, Chapter 1, Section 10; study Matt. 22:29, 31; Eph. 2:20; Acts 28:23)

E. A. Wallis Budge, Babylonian Life And History, p. 50).

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